An average modern reverse
osmosis plant needs six kilowatt-hours of electricity to desalinate one
cubic metre of water.The process also results in an amount of salty
briny waste. The challenge for these plants is to find ways to reduce
Ion exchange technology is used to remove salts (cations and anions)
from the water Soluble chemical compounds, when dissolved in water,
become ionized; that is their molecules dissociate into positively and
negatively charged components called ions.
Water softening is the reduction of the concentration of calcium,
magnesium, and certain other metal cations in hard water.
Membrane filters are widely used for filtering both drinking water and
sewage. They are widely used in industry, particularly for beverage
preparation (including bottled water.
A water cooler or water dispenser is a device that cools and dispenses
water. They are generally broken up in two categories: bottleless and
bottled water coolers.
Iron present in ground water is responsible for imparting a reddish
colour to the water. An abnormal accumulation of iron content in
parenchymal organs can cause diseases like hemochromatosis and other
such gastrointestinal diseases. Moreover, iron contaminated water
acquires a metallic taste and is harmful to drink.
Effluent Treatment Plant
Industrial wastewater treatment covers the mechanisms and processes used
to treat waters that have been contaminated in some way by anthropogenic
industrial or commercial activities prior to its release into the
environment or its re-use.
Sewage Treatment Plant
Sewage treatment is the process of removing contaminants from wastewater
and household sewage, both runoff (effluents) and domestic. It includes
physical, chemical, and biological processes to remove physical,
chemical and biological contaminants.
Iron oxide adsorption is a water treatment process that is used to
remove arsenic from drinking water. Arsenic is a common natural
contaminant of well water and is highly carcinogenic..